Design and Product Development

Visibility-Enhanced Bicycling Clothes with Flashing LEDs Applied for Biological Motion

  • Helen Koo (Auburn University)
  • Xiao Huang (Auburn University)


Bicyclists number approximately 39 to 40 million around the world; the U.S. bicyclist population grew by 27 million in 2011 (Formosa, 2012). In 2010, roughly 52,000 bicyclists were injured, and 618 were killed in traffic accidents, which accounted for 2% of all traffic fatalities; the cause was mostly low conspicuity. Eight billion dollars are spent annually in the US to care for bicycle crash victims (NHTSA, 2012). Therefore, researchers have suggested that bicyclists wear visibility aids during at night (Kwan & Mapstone, 2004; Wood et al., 2011). Many studies have suggested using LEDs, but there is a lack of understanding about the appropriate positions for wearing these lights. Previous research (Koo & Dunne, 2011; Koo & Smith, 2010) found effectiveness for using LEDs on joints at nighttime. However, there is no research comparing the effectiveness on differing joints. Thus, the purpose of this study was to develop visibility-enhanced bicycling clothing with flashing LEDs on different configurations, focusing on body joints and evaluating the effects of this clothing design on bicyclists’ visibility. This research will provide ideas for apparel designers to develop visibility-aiding bicycling clothing as well as assistance to bicyclists in placing flashing LEDs on the most effective areas of their bodies.

Keywords: bicycling, LEDs, biological motion, visibility

How to Cite:

Koo, H. & Huang, X., (2013) “Visibility-Enhanced Bicycling Clothes with Flashing LEDs Applied for Biological Motion”, International Textile and Apparel Association Annual Conference Proceedings 70(1).

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Published on
01 Jan 2013
Peer Reviewed