Pedagogy and Professional Development

Measuring Self-Efficacy in the Context of 3D/Virtual Technology Learning: Scale Development and Assessment

  • Kittichai Watchravesringkan (University of North Carolina Greensboro)
  • Hyo Jung (Julie) Chang (Texas Tech University)
  • Nancy J. Hodges (University of North Carolina Greensboro)
  • Ruoh-Nan Yan (Colorado State University)


This study is to develop and validate an instrument assessing self-efficacy in 3D/virtual technology use within an apparel-related pedagogical context and to test the instrument via an exploratory study to assess the effectiveness of learning activities designed to improve students’ self-efficacy by using 3D/virtual technology. The participants were recruited from three universities and completed the survey before and after the 3D/virtual technology activities. In view of the expectancy-value theory, the three self-efficacy factors identified in this study (i.e., attitude, skill/knowledge, and comprehensive) reflect both success and outcome expectancies relative to 3D/virtual technology. The results indicate that the levels of attitude self-efficacy and comprehensive self-efficacy increased after the learning activities were completed, but the level of skill-knowledge self-efficacy did not. As this study was designed as a pilot test of the developed instrument, further refinement of the measures using larger sample sizes and in other academic contexts is needed.

Keywords: 3D/virtual technology, learning, self-efficacy, expectancy-value theory, quantitative

How to Cite:

Watchravesringkan, K., Chang, H., Hodges, N. J. & Yan, R., (2022) “Measuring Self-Efficacy in the Context of 3D/Virtual Technology Learning: Scale Development and Assessment”, International Textile and Apparel Association Annual Conference Proceedings 79(1). doi:

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Published on
31 Dec 2022
Peer Reviewed