Consumer Behavior

“I Am a Digital Human”: Effectiveness of Using Virtual Influencers as Fashion Brand Endorsers

  • Ji Young Lee orcid logo (SUNY Buffalo State)
  • Ki Ho Park orcid logo (Salisbury University)


Virtual influencer (VI) is a human-like, digital character, which is designed using computer graphics and motion capture technology to simulate the human’s realistic features. Several famous VIs have endorsed fashion brands, appearing in the advertising campaigns (e.g., Lil Miquela x Prada). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using VIs as fashion brand endorsers. Specifically, we tested the impacts of the five perceived characteristics of VIs (attractiveness, innovativeness, curiosity, authenticity, and controllability) on consumer’s attitudes to the advertisement featuring VIs, brand attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward the brand. Data were collected from 252 consumers aged in 18-25 through Amazon MTurk. Structural equation modeling results indicated that the more consumers perceived VIs as attractive, authentic, controllable, and curious, the more positively they reacted to the advertisement featuring VIs as well as to the brand (and vice versa). Brand attitudes influenced behavioral intentions toward the brand. Consumer’s innovativeness and market mavenism were significant moderating variables.

Keywords: Virtual influencers, virtual humanoids, influencer marketing

How to Cite:

Lee, J. & Park, K., (2022) ““I Am a Digital Human”: Effectiveness of Using Virtual Influencers as Fashion Brand Endorsers”, International Textile and Apparel Association Annual Conference Proceedings 79(1). doi:

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Published on
31 Dec 2022
Peer Reviewed